Flora of the Nilgiris

Family : Flora of Nilgiri Biosphere (Northern Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve)

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Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. var. gracilis Gamble

Leaf arrangement

Alternate distichous

Leaf Type

Palmately trifoliate

Leaf Shape

Lanceolate, Elliptic

Leaf Apex


Leaf Base


Leaf Margin


Habit : An armed straggler.

Habitat and Distribution : Common, especially on denuded slopes in full sun.  Foothills, scrub jungles upto 1200m.

Indigenous Information : The leaves are used in curing skin diseases.

Field Tips : Leaves gland dotted. Crushed leaves have an acidic odour.


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English : Lopez Root Tree, Forest Pepper
Irula : Maaseegai
Tamil : Kindumullu
Hindi : Jungli Kali Mirchi


In terminal or axillary panicles, cream. Flowering throughout the year with a peak from July-October.

Fruit :

A berry, globose, compressed green to orange to red. Seeds 2-3, sub reniform. Fruiting peaks from December-January.

All from Flora of Nilgiri Biosphere (Northern Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve)