Flora of the Nilgiris

Family : Apocynaceae
Flora of Nilgiri Biosphere (Northern Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve)

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Carissa carandas L

Leaf arrangement

Opposite decussate

Leaf Type


Leaf Shape

Oblanceolate, Obovate

Leaf Apex


Leaf Base


Leaf Margin


Habit : An armed evergreen shrub.

Habitat and Distribution : Common in plains and scrub jungles along river banks upto 900m.India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Burma, Malaysia.

Indigenous Information : Fruits edible and sour in taste.

Other relevent information : Seeds are dispersed by birds. Food plant of Olive green Hawkmouth. Fruits edible and pickled. Wood used to make combs and spoons, thorny branches used as fencing material.

Field Tips : Shrub with horizontal branches. Leaf tip rounded or retuse, glabrous.  Milky latex present. Bark yellowish-brown, wood white with irregular grey to orange-yellow streaked heartwood.


1 Comment »

  1. Kannada it is known as karande

    Comment by Dr K S Bhat — September 21, 2013 @ 3:18 pm

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English : Christ Thorn
Irula : Kalakai/Bode Kavala
Tamil : Killeekkaai
Hindi : Karaunda


In axillary or terminal two - three chotomous, fragrant, white. Flowering from March-April.

Fruit :

A berry,  ellipsoid often tinged red, ripening dark blue or purple. Fruiting from March onwards.

All from Apocynaceae
Flora of Nilgiri Biosphere (Northern Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve)